Infrastructure

Infrastructure refers to the production or existence of infrastructure facilities. These include circulation facilities (roads, paths, squares, parking areas, etc.), utilities (water, gas, heat and electricity supply) and disposal systems (sewage and refuse disposal).1 In accordance with sections 30, 34 and 35 of the Baugesetzbuch (BauGB – German Building Code), a property’s infrastructure is a requirement for issuing a building permit. The respective state building codes specify these guidelines accordingly.2 The municipality is also responsible for a property’s infrastructure (section 123(1) BauGB). However, this can be outsourced to third parties (section 124 BauGB). In any event, the infrastructure must be usable by the completion of the building structures and cannot be finished afterwards.3

The municipality can allocate 90% of the costs incurred for the infrastructure to the owners of the area affected. The allocation formula is based on the type and degree of building or other use, the property area and the width of the property along the infrastructure facility. All properties that can be built on, even if construction has not yet begun at the time of assessment, are subject to contributions. The same applies to the maintenance of the infrastructure facilities. If the infrastructure is put in place by a private developer, the owners and the developer must agree an infrastructure development contract under private law.4

A development plan is usually required to create the infrastructure facilities (section 125 BauGB). This can contain various stipulations on circulation areas, utility areas with walking, driving and pipeline rights, green areas or areas for pollution control systems.5
  • 1 Vgl. Krautzberger, Michael; Kühling, Jürgen (2013): Öffentliches Recht der Immobilienwirtschaft. In: Schulte, Karl-Werner; Kühling, Jürgen; Servatius, Wolfgang; Stellmann, Frank: Immobilienökonomie II.
  • 2 Vgl. Bönker, Christian; Lailach, Martin (2009): Praxisleitfaden Immobilienrecht. Erwerb Finanzierung Bebauung und Nutzung, 2. Aufl. München, S. 148.
  • 3 Vgl. Krautzberger, Michael; Kühling, Jürgen (2013): Öffentliches Recht der Immobilienwirtschaft. In: Schulte, Karl-Werner; Kühling, Jürgen; Servatius, Wolfgang; Stellmann, Frank: Immobilienökonomie II. Rechtliche Grundlagen, 3. Aufl. Oldenburg, S. 95.
  • 4 Vgl. Sailer, Erwin; Grabener, Henning J.; Matzen, Ulf (Hrsg.) (2014): Immobilien-Fachwissen von A-Z. Das Lexikon mit umfassenden Antworten und Erklärungen auf Fragen aus der Immobilienwirtschaft, 10 Aufl. Kiel, S. 355.
  • 5 Vgl. Ackermann M. (2007). Erschließung. In: Sandner, Siegfried; Weber, Ulrich (2007): Lexikon der Immobilienwertermittlung, 2. Aufl. Köln, S. 248-250.
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: 12/10/2019